Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Roselle flower petals extract inhibits periodontal pathogenic biofilms


Objectives: The present study aimed to determine the effect of roselle flower petals extract on Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilms in vitro.Material and Methods: Crystal violet biofilm assays were carried out to evaluate the effect of roselle flower petals extract on F. nucleatum ATCC-25586 and P. gingivalis ATCC-3327 biofilms. Each bacterium was cultured in Brain Heart Infusion broth for 48 h at 37°C under anaerobic conditions. Subsequently, 200 µL (107 CFU/mL) of bacterial suspension was distributed in a 96-well plate for 48 h to form both mono- and dual-species biofilms. Different concentrations of the roselle flower extract and 0.2% chlorhexidine-gluconate (positive control) were added to the biofilms in the wells and incubated for 1 h, 6 h, and 24 h.Results: There was a significant biofilm reduction after treatment with roselle flower petals extract at all concentrations and incubation times compared to the negative control (p<0.05). The most effective concentrations for inhibiting the monospecies biofilms of F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis and the dual species biofilm were 100%, leading to a 99.8%, 100%, and 90.6% reduction of the biofilm compared to the control, respectively.Conclusion: Roselle flower petals extract is effective at inhibiting F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis biofilms. This anti-biofilm agent may be developed as an alternative therapy to prevent periodontal disease. Future studies are needed to explore the mechanisms of action of the active compounds.


  1. Ministry of Health of The Republic of Indonesia. Report on
  2. National Basic Health Research Result (Riskesdas) 2018. National Institute of Health Research and Development; Jakarta: 2018. p. 94.
  3. Segura V, Ilyina A, Segura C, et al. Etiology and microbiology of periodontal disease: A review. Afr J Microbiol Res 2015;9: 2300-2306.
  4. Jakubovics NS, Goodman SD, Warren LM, et al. The dental plaque biofilm matrix. Periodontol 2000 2001;86: 32-56.
  5. Bowen WH, Burne RA, Wu H, et al. Oral biofilms: pathogens, matrix, and polymicrobial interactions in microenvironments. Trends Microbiol 2018;26: 229-242.
  6. How K, Song K, Chan K. Porphyromonas gingivalis: An overview of periodontopathic pathogen below the gum line. Front Microbiol 2016;7: 53.
  7. Anand U, Jacobo-Herrera N, Altemimi A, et al. A Comprehensive review on medicinal plants as antimicrobial therapeutics: potential avenues of biocompatible drug discovery. Metabolites 2019;9: 258.
  8. Widyarman AS, Suhalim OP, Nandary D, et al. Pomegranate juice inhibits periodontal pathogens biofilm in vitro. Sci Dent J 2018;2: 101-108.
  9. Widyarman AS, Sumadi S, Agustin TP. Antibiofilm effect of Clitoria ternatea flower juice on Porphyromonas gingivalis in vitro. J Indones Dent Assoc 2018;19: 1.9. Widyarman AS, Cynthia E, Theodorea CF, et al.
  10. Antibiofilm activity of temu kunci (Boesenbergia rotunda), an Indonesian medicinal plant extract, against root canal pathogens. Drug Invent Today 2019;12: 2486-92
  11. Amos S, Binda L, Chindo BA, et al. Neuropharmacological effects of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extract. Pharm Biol 2003; 41: 325-329.
  12. Salah AM, Gathumbi J, Vierling W. Inhibition of intestinal motility by methanol extracts of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (Malvaceae) in rats. Phytother Res 2002;16: 283-285.
  13. Higginbotham KL, Burris KP, Zivanovic S, et al. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa aqueous extracts against Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Staphylococcus aureus in a microbiological medium and milk of various fat concentrations. J Food Prot 2014;77: 262-268.
  14. Zarkani AA. Antimicrobial activity of Hibiscus sabdariffa and Sesbania grandiflora extracts against some G–ve and G+ve strains. Banat J Biotechnol 2016;7: 17-23.
  15. Suwandi T, Suniarti DF, Prayitno SW. Effect of ethanol extract of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. calyx on Streptococcus sanguinis viability in vitro biofilm based on crystal violet. J Med Plants Res 2013;7: 2476-2482.
  16. Indriani L, Dharmautama M. Antimicrobial test of roselle (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.) ethanol extract againts Porphyromonas gingivalis and Streptococcus sanguis using agar method (in vitro study). J Dentomaxillofac Sci 2016;1: 134-138.
  17. Juliantina RF, Citra AMD, Nirwani B, et al. Benefits of red betel (Piper crocatum) as an antibacterial agent against gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria bakteri. JKKI: J Kedok Kes Indonesia 2009:1: 1-10. (In Indonesia)
  18. Karou D, Savadogo A, Canini A, et al. Antibacterial activity of alkaloids from Sida acuta. Afr J Biotechnol 2005;4: 1452-1457.
  19. Retnowati Y, Bialangi N, Posangi WN. Growth of
  20. Staphylococcus aureus bacteria on media exposed to infusion of bitter leaf (Andrographis paniculata). Sainstek 2011;6: 1-9. (In Indonesia)
  21. Madduluri S, Rao KB, Sitaram B. In vitro evaluation of antibacterial activity of five indigenous plants extracts against five bacterial pathogens of human. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 2013;5: 679-684.
  22. Kregiel D, Berlowska J, Witonska I, et al. Saponin-based, biological-active surfactants from plants. In: Najjar R (ed). Application and characterization of surfactants. InTech Open; London: 2017. p. 183-205.
  23. Khan MI, Ahhmed A, Shin JH, et al. Green tea seed isolated saponins exerts antibacterial effects against various strains of Gram positive and Gram negative bacteria, a comprehensive study in vitro and in vivo. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2018;2018: 3486106.
  24. Hendra R, Ahmad S, Sukari A, et al. Flavonoid analyses and antimicrobial activity of various parts of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruit Int J Mol Sci 2011;12: 3422-3431.
  25. Panche AN, Diwan AD, Chandra SR. Flavonoids: an overview. J Nutr Sci 2016;5: e47.
  26. Cushnie TPT, Lamb AJ. Antimicrobial activity of flavonoids. Int J Antimicrob Agents 2005;26: 343-356.
  27. Nuria MC, Faizaitun A, Sumantri. Antibacterial activity test of ethanol extract of Jatropha leaves (Jatropha curcas L.) against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, and Salmonella typhi ATCC 1408. Mediagro 2009;5: 26-37. (In Indonesia)
  28. Li H, Wang Z, Liu Y. Review in the studies on tannins activity of cancer prevention and anticancer. Zhong Yao Cai (J Chin Med Mater) 2003;26: 444-448.

How to Cite

Sebastian, J., & Widyarman, A. S. (2021). Roselle flower petals extract inhibits periodontal pathogenic biofilms. Journal of Dentomaxillofacial Science, 6(2), 102–105.




Search Panel

James Sebastian
Google Scholar
JDMFS Journal

Armelia S. Widyarman
Google Scholar
JDMFS Journal