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Efektivitas penggunaan tongue scraper terhadap penurunan indeks tongue coating dan jumlah koloni bakteri anaerob lidah Effectivity of tongue scraper on reducing tongue coating and anaerobic bacteria colony count

Abstract

Many microorganisms have been found colonizing the dorsum of tongue. To prevent infection and development ofother pathologies in oral cavity, tongue cleaning has been advocated to reduce the amount of coating andmicroorganism loading in the mouth. The aim of this study is to find out the impact of tongue cleaning using tonguescraper against tongue coating index and anaerobic bacterial colony count on tongue dorsum. This study wascarried out on 24 male and 16 female participants aged 11 to 17. Tongue coating index was used to assess tonguecoating and tongue samples were taken to count the bacterial colony. The result showed that there is a significantdifference tongue coating index (Wilcoxon Signed Rank test, p=0.000) and amount of anaerobic bacteria colony (tpairedtest, p=0.007)before and after using tongue scraper. In conclusion, tongue scraper can reduce tonguecoating index and there was significant difference in anaerobic bacteria colony count before and after using tonguescraper.

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Introduction

Background information

Provision of Maternal health services continues to be a serious problem in developing countries, particularly in Africa, although the current world focuses on the need to improve maternal health services, particularly with the use of digital technologies brought by continuous innovations on science and technology.[1] At present, 85% of the world has been covered by cell phone signals, in which 95% of people live in areas covered with mobile cellular networks and mobile broadband networks (3G, 4G or above) reachable to 84% of the world’s population. Such widespread use of mobile phones has helped to drive their integration into healthcare.[2]

Globally by 2017, maternal mortality rate (MMR) was unacceptably very high, whereby it is approximated about 295000 women died during and following pregnancy and childbirth. Moreover, the majority of these deaths, about 94%, occurred in low-resource settings, where most could have been prevented.[3]

Tanzania is one of the countries with high MMR, which is approximated to be 398/100,000 live births. In the northern part of Tanzania and Zanzibar, deaths of children under 5 years are approximately 56/1000 live births. In addition, in the lake zone is approximated to be 88/1000 live births, 87/1000 live births in the urban mainland, to 76/1000 live births in the rural mainland part of Tanzania. The differences on MMR have been considered to partly be explained by differences in the provision of adequate maternal health care services, including Skilled Birth Attendances.[4]

Tanzania has been among a few countries that have developed digital software systems and technologies that assist in the provision of health services, particularly maternal health services. In 2015, Tumbi regional referral hospital (TRRH), which is one of the directorates of Kibaha Education Center in collaboration with Mzumbe University, initiated an electronic software system known as Government of Tanzania, Hospital Management Information System (GoT-HoMIS) installed in computers and mobile phones as a software application where health care providers use it in filling patient particulars, ordering of equipment such as drugs and enhancing effective management of the patient. The system is used by health care professionals (HCP) together with other digital technologies, that is, computers, mobile phones, and video conference system as to improve provision of health services, particularly maternal health services.[5] The application of this digital technology for service delivery is new to health professionals; thus, little is known about their attitude and practice toward the use of digital technology for service delivery, particularly at Reproductive Child Health (RCH) unit. This study assessed HCP knowledge and attitude toward the use of digital technologies in provision of maternal health services at Tumbi Regional Referral Hospital in Tanzania.

Materials and Methods

Setting

We conducted a descriptive cross-sectional study in TRRH located in Coast region of Tanzania. TRRH was chosen as the study area because it was the first regional referral hospital in Tanzania to install digital software systems, particularly Government of Tanzania, Hospital Management Information System that is used in filling patient particulars, making follow-ups, management, bill filling, and processing. It is also one of the hospitals with the aim of using digital technology to reduce and eliminate maternal deaths through integration with district health information software for health management information system statistics where the statistics can be used to develop appropriate policies and strategies toward the reduction of maternal deaths as stated in its 5 years’ development plan II of 2016/17-2020/21.

Study population and sampling

The study targeted HCP with 18 years and above from the obstetrics and gynecology department composed of five units, that is, maternity, gynecology, pediatrics general, neonates, and RCH, as they are responsible with the provision of maternal health services.

A sample size of 50 HCP from the obstetrics and gynecology department was used. All HCP in the obstetrics and gynecology department were included in the study because the number of HCP in the department was <100; therefore were manageable to be included in the study. The inclusion criteria for the study were all HCP from the five units of the obstetrics and gynecology department, that is, maternity, pediatric general, neonates, gynecology, and RCH. The exclusion criteria for the study were all other HCP from other departments that were not concerned with maternal health care. In addition, HCPs from this department were responsible with provision of maternal health services through the use digital systems. Table 1 indicates the composition of the sample size included

Table 1. Sample size composition
Departmental units of obstetrics and gynecology department Total number Selected sample size
Maternity 12 12
Gynecology 9 9
Pediatrics general 13 13
Neonates 7 7
Reproductive child health 9 9
Total number of health care professionals 50 50
 

Measurements

Study questionnaires and field observations were adopted in collecting relevant information for the study. The questions were developed and translated into Kiswahili to facilitate adequate comprehension of the respondents. The questionnaire was self-administered under the supervision of the research team. The questionnaire included six questions determining social demographic characteristics of HCP, eight questions measuring the rate of use of digital health technologies in the provision of maternal health services, 12 questions measuring knowledge of HCP on the use of digital health technology (DHT) in the provision of maternal health services, and use of digital health technologies in the provision of maternal health services. It took 15–20 min for a participant to fill the questionnaires which were sent physically to the respondents. Direct field observation was used by the researcher to observe the presence of installed digital health devices and systems such as computers, mobile phones, video conference system, and GoT-HoMIS. Proper functionality of available digital health systems, rate of use of the digital systems in the provision of maternal health services, mostly used digital health system in the provision of maternal health services, and availability of internet services that facilitate effective usage of the digital health system.

Data analysis

The study used a quantitative approach; thus, quantitative data were analyzed by the use of excel spreadsheet and SPSS software V.20. Data were edited, coded, and cleaned before being analyzed. The results are presented in tables, graphs, and charts.

Ethical issues

The research was approved by Mzumbe University. At TRRH the research team requested and granted permission from TRRH management for conducting research to the facility. Respondent consent was obtained and confidentiality was observed in dealing with the respondents so as to obtain in-depth information on knowledge and attitude of HCP toward digital health in the provision of maternal health services

Results

Demographic characteristics of the respondents

Study questionnaires were administered to 50 HCP in all units of the obstetrics and gynecology department in TRRH, of which all 50 HCPs completely fill all information needed that made a response rate of 100%. Most 35 (70%) HCP were female and 15 (30%) were male. Furthermore, 15 (30%) of the HCP were at the age of 18–25. Those aged between 26 and 35 were 12 (24%), those with age between 36 and 45 were 9 (28%) HCP and those with the age of 46 and above were 9 (18%) HCP. Regarding education level, only one respondent, equivalent to 2% had a primary level of education, 5 (10%) had a secondary education level, 15 (30%) had a college education level, and 29 (58%) had a university educational level. Results on working experience of HCPs showed that 22 (44%) of the HCP had an experience of <5 years, 18 (36%) HCPs had an experience of 6–10 years, and 10 (20%) HCP had an experience of more than 10 years. Based on HCPs careers, the findings revealed that 5 (10%) HCP were gynecologists, 15 (30%) HCP were medical doctors, 8 (16%) HCP were nursing officer, 6 (12%) HCP were an assistant nursing officer, 10 (20%) HCP were enrolled nurses, and 5 (10%) were medical attendants and only 1 (2%) of HCPs was obstetricians [Table 2].

Table 2. Social demographic characteristics of health care professionals
Variable Frequency (N) Proportion (%)
Sex    
 Females 35 70
 Males 15 30
Age    
 18–25 15 30
 26–35 12 24
 36–45 14 28
 45–above 9 18
Education level    
 Primary 1 2
 Secondary 5 10
 College 15 30
 University 29 58
Working experience    
 Less than 5 years 22 44
 5–10 years 18 36
 11 years and above 10 20
Professional careers of health care professionals    
 Gynecologists 5 10
 Medical doctor 15 30
 Nursing officer 8 16
 Assistant nursing officer 6 12
 Enrolled nurse 10 20
 Medical attendant 5 10
 Other 1 2
 

The rate of use of digital heath technology in provision of maternal health services

With regard to the rate of use of digital health technologies by HCP, a majority of respondents 100% responded that digital health technologies and devices, that is, GoT-HoMIS and mobile phones were available and installed at their working area. Among them, 66% are functioning properly and only 34% of the respondents responded that digital health system was not function well. In addition, it was also revealed that software system GoT-HoMIS is the mostly (90%) used digital technology in the provision of maternal health services and other services. It is because of its simplicity and availability to all department offices of TRRH. Thus, due to its simplicity and availability, the technology GoT- HoMIS is used by 98% in facilitating the provision of maternal health services, although it is highly used by 50% [Table 3].

Table 3. The rate of use of digital heath technology in provision of maternal health services
Question Response Frequency (N) Proportion (%)
Are DHT available/installed in your working area? Yes (available) 50 100
No (not available) 0 0
Do they function properly? Yes (properly functioning) 33 66
No (not functioning properly) 17 34
From installed/available DHT which one is the most used in provision of maternal health services? Government of Tanzania, Hospital Management Information System 45 90
Mobile phones 5 10
Are they used in provision of maternal health services? Yes (used in provision of maternal health services) 49 98
No (not used in provision of maternal health services) 1 2
How often are they used in provision of maternal health services? Low 3 6
Medium 22 44
High 25 50
For how long have you been using installed/available DHT in providing maternal health services at your working area? 0–5 years 46 92
6–10 years 4 8
11 and above 0 0
DHT: Digital health technology

Knowledge of HCP on the use of DHT in the provision of maternal health services

With regard to knowledge of HCPs on the use of digital health technologies in the provision of maternal health services, 86% were aware of DHT practice, where the majority 52% became aware from the working place, 24% from school, and 10% elsewhere. Furthermore, the findings revealed that 92% of HCP had an understanding on the practice of DHT despite having a moderate knowledge level on using DHT in the provision of maternal health services. On the other hand, 64% of HCP at the obstetrics and gynecology department had attended training as a means of improving and updating their knowledge level and improve their understanding on the use of DHT in the provision of maternal health services. In addition, the training provided helped to improve their knowledge level by 60%; thus, provision of training helped to improve the provision of maternal health services through digital health technologies by 64% [Table 4].

Table 4. Knowledge of health care professionals on the use of DHT in provision of maternal health services
Question Response Frequency (N) Proportion (%)
Do you know about DHT practice? Yes 43 86
No 7 14
Where did you get that knowledge? School 12 24
Working place 26 52
Other 5 10
Do you have an understanding on the usage of DHT? Yes 46 92
No 4 8
What is your knowledge level on the use of DHT in provision of maternal health services? Low 14 28
Moderate 31 62
High 5 10
Have you ever attended any training on the use of DHT in provision of maternal health services? Yes 32 64
No 19 36
After the training, the level of your knowledge on DHT was improved? Yes 30 60
No 20 40
Did it improve the provision of maternal health services Yes 32 64
No 18 36
Are there other means apart from training that improved your knowledge on DHT? Yes 35 70
No 15 30

Attitude of HCP on the use of DHT in provision of maternal health services

With regard to the attitude of HCP on the use of digital health technologies in the provision of maternal health services majority of respondents (86%) think that the use of DHT will improve the provision of maternal health services. This is because it simplifies communication and ensures effective management of the patient, thus ensuring the effective provision of maternal health service. Furthermore, 80% of respondents had a positive perception on the use and practice of DHT in the provision of maternal health services and only 20% had a negative perception. Finally, majority (86%) of HCP believed that the use of DHT will improve the provision of maternal health services [Table 5].

Table 5. Attitude of health care professionals on the use of digital health technology in provision of maternal health services
Question Response Frequency (N) Proportion (%)
Do you think the use of digital health technologies improves provision of maternal health services? Yes 43 86
No 7 14
How do you perceive the use of digital health technologies in provision of maternal health services? Positively 40 80
Negatively 10 10
Do you believe that the use of digital health technologies will improve the provision of maternal health services? Yes 43 86
No 7 14
 

Discussion

The results of our study revealed that digital health technologies, that is, GoT-HoMIS and mobile phones, are highly used at a rate of 90% by HCP in the provision of maternal health services. HCPs were also well knowledgeable in the use of digital health technologies and had attended training as a means of improving their knowledge on the use of DHT. Moreover, it was revealed that the knowledge of HCPs was directly proportion with their positive attitude in terms of their views and beliefs on the use of DHT. This is because HCP considered the use of digital health technologies such as GoT-HoMIS, mobile phones, and computers as an improvement over the current practices in the health industry, which is well fitted with the requirements needs of the current practices of health industry in the provision of maternal health care services. Studies conducted by Woodward et al., 2014[6] that explored personal experiences of health care workers toward the use of e-health innovations in selected post-conflict situations, Sukums et al., 2014[7] that analyzed Health care workers’ knowledge of and attitudes toward computer applications in rural African health facilities and Orton et al., 2018[8] that determined the relationship between healthcare professionals’ attitudes toward e-health, level of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) skills and e-Health use in healthcare delivery in government and private hospitals in northern Uganda, respectively, have also argued that HCP had a positive attitude on the use of digital technologies in the provision of health services.

The current study “Health Care Professional Knowledge and Attitude toward the Use of Digital Technologies in Provision of Maternal Health Services at TRRH in Tanzania” results also found an inverse relationship in terms of the knowledge level of HCPs versus their understanding level on the use of DHT in the provision of maternal health services. Surprisingly, a moderate knowledge level of HCPs on the use of DHT reflects HCPs confidence on using ICT application, that is, GoT-HoMIS in facilitating maternal health services. It also appears that moderately knowledge level was much influenced by the presence of commonly available ICT devices (computer) and applications in hospitals. Thus, it was not surprising that the results indicated a moderate knowledge level on the use of DHT that has been continuously used based on experience and self-learning. Moreover, in some units of the obstetrics and gynecology department, it was revealed that low knowledge level was attributed to poor skills on using digital devices, that is, computers. This is consistent with previous studies including Woodward et al., 2014;[6] Kipturgo et al., 2014;[9] and Orton et al., 2018,[8] where digital devices and applications, such as internet, e-mail, word processors, and computers received a moderate understanding level on using them among healthcare professionals and staffs.

We also found that the knowledge of HCPs varies directly with the rate of use of DHT in the provision of maternal health services. This means that since there is a high use of digital technology by HCPs at the obstetrics and gynecology department, there is also a high understanding level among HCPs on using digital devices and software systems in facilitating the provision of maternal health services. These results are similar from what was initially expected and the reason behind is because the study area TRRH was the first regional referral hospitals in Tanzania to install digital software systems, that is, GoT-HoMIS that is used in filling patient particulars, making follow-ups, ensuring patients management, bill filling, and processing thus expecting that HCP would also have a high of understanding on using DHT in providing maternal health services. These results were different from those obtained in a study done by Noordam et al., 2011,[10] who found out negative (inverse) relationships between the rate (80%) of use of mHealth and staffs understanding (36%) on mobile health technology in the provision of health services in the study area.

Limitations

Our study had the following constraints; first, there were eight departments in the hospital using DHT to provide health services, but this study was limited to only one department (obstetrics and gynecology) concerned with the provision of maternal health services through digital technologies; thus, the study may not be representative and should be used with caution. Second, based on the available digital health technologies adopted in this study, the study based more on software technological system, that is, GoT-HoMIS and pays narrow attention on other digital technology devices such as computers; thus, it has not reflected a real picture of DHT practice at TRRH.

Conclusion

The use of digital technology such as GoT-HoMIS by HCP in the provision of maternal health services is high. The majority of HCP has an understanding on the use of digital systems in the provision of maternal health services and had a fairly positive attitude in terms of their views, beliefs, and perception on the use of digital technologies in the provision of maternal health services. More initiatives should be undertaken by the government and other stakeholders to promote the use of DHT and ultimately improvement of health service delivery.

Section

References

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How to Cite

Hamid, H., Aulia, R., & Samad, R. (2011). Efektivitas penggunaan tongue scraper terhadap penurunan indeks tongue coating dan jumlah koloni bakteri anaerob lidah Effectivity of tongue scraper on reducing tongue coating and anaerobic bacteria colony count. Journal of Dentomaxillofacial Science, 10(1), 32–35. https://doi.org/10.15562/jdmfs.v10i1.249

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