Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Association between duration of residence with gingival pigmentation in Nuha District, East Luwu Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia


Objective : Gingival pigmentation (changes of the gingival color) from brown to black discoloration may occur due to exogenous and endogenous factor. Increased concentration of heavy metal in the blood has been known to be one of the exogenous factors that could lead to gingival pigmentation. Nuha is a sub-district in South Sulawesi which soil contains high concentration of nickel and other heavy metals. Heavy metal contaminations in the water, soil, or air have detrimental effects on human health, particularly the oral cavity.Material and Methods : This study proposed to determine the association between duration of residence with gingival pigmentation to the community of Nuha District of East Luwu society. This study was a descriptive observational with cross-sectional study design.Results : The population in this study was all of the Nuha residents. The sampling technique used was simple two-stage cluster sampling. Gingival pigmentation in this study was measured using Dummet Oral Pigmentation Index (DOPI).Conclusion : The data obtained showed significant association between duration of residence with maxillar and mandibular gingival pigmentation in the residents of Nuha District of Luwu Timur. p-value for maxillar DOPI was 0.003 and for mandibular DOPI was 0.000.  


  1. Peeran SW, Ramalingam K, Peeran SY, et al. Gingival pigmentation index proposal of a new index with a brief review of current indices. Eur J Dent 2014;8: 287-290.
  2. Dummett CO, Gupta OMP. Estimating the epidemiology of oral pigmentation. J Natl Med Assoc 1964;56: 419-420
  3. Hasan S, Khan NI, Sherwani OAK, et al. Drugs causing orofacial pigmentation: an overview of literature. Int Res J Pharm 2013;4: 40-43.
  4. Kauzman A, Pavone M, Blanas N, Bradley G. Pigmented lesions of the oral cavity: review, differential diagnosis, and case presentations. J Can Dent Assoc 2004;70: 682-683.
  5. Dilea M, Prelipcean DD, Ioni D. About oral health of romanian children from various polluted area due to heavy metals. UPB Sci Bull 2012;74: 171-182.
  6. El-Said KF, El-Ghamry AM, Mahdy NH, El-Bestawy NA. Chronic occupational exposure to lead and its impact on oral health. J Egypt Public Health Assoc 2008;83: 451-466.
  7. Profil kecamatan Nuha. 2012 [Cited: 2014 November 30]; Available from :
  8. Purnama A, Zakaria F, Kusumaningrum HD, Hasan S. Selected minerals in meat of cattle grazing in mine revegetation areas and safe consumption for human. Food science and quality management 2014; 30: 18-25
  9. Setiadhi R, Soewondo W. Hubungan antara pigmentasi melanin pada Gingiva anak-anak dengan riwayat orang tua perokok di Rumah Sakit Gigi dan Mulut Fakultas Kedokteran Gigi Universitas Padjadjaran. New Bionatura 2011;13: 31-39.
  10. Penyakit gingiva. Universitas Gadjah Mada. [cited: 2014 November 30]; Available from :,d.c2E
  11. Petersen PE, Gormen C. Oral conditions among German battery factory workers. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol 1991;19: 104-106.
  12. Oktaria C, Munandar S. Pengaruh masa kerja terhadap kejadian Gingival lead line pada polisi lalu lintas di kota Semarang. Dental Health Department Medical Faculty Diponegoro University 2009. p. 1-35.
  13. Ghapanchi J, Darvishi M, Derafshi R, et al. Prevalence of Oral pigmented lesions: a prospective study. Aust J Basic & Appl Sci 2012;6: 417-420.

How to Cite

Samad, R., & Malinta, Q. U. (2017). Association between duration of residence with gingival pigmentation in Nuha District, East Luwu Regency, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Journal of Dentomaxillofacial Science, 2(1), 23–28.




Search Panel

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>