Skip to main content Skip to main navigation menu Skip to site footer

Enamel remineralization after extracoronal bleaching using nano-hydroxyapatite (nha) from synthesis results of blood clam (anadara granosa) shells


Objective: Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) is considered effective in stimulating the occurrence of enamel remineralization after application of bleaching materials. Nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) can be synthesized from the shell of the blood clam (Anadara granosa) and the substances contained can be measured using X-ray diffraction (XRD).Material and Methods: The samples used in this study were 6 premolars of one upper jaw prepared by buccal and palatal crown with size of 5×5×2 mm (12 enamel disc), soaked in saline solution then divided into 2 treatment groups. Initial calcium percentage examinations were performed on each sample before bleaching material application. Next, bleaching material was applied to the sample according to the manufacturer's instructions and calcium level in each treatment group was re-examined. Application of CPP-ACP paste and nHA synthesis of blood clam (anadara granosa) shells was performed after bleaching with an hour application time per day for 7 consecutive days, and re-examined afterwards. The calcium percentage examination is performed using Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy (EDS) tools. Data are collected and examined.Results: Data were collected and analyzed using independent t test. The results indicate that remineralization with nHA from synthesis results of blood clam shells increased the calcium levels of samples that had been extracoronally bleached, but statistically there was no significant difference with the value of p = 0.345 (p> 0.05)Conclusion: The nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) application of blood clam shells (Anadara granosa) synthesis results can increase the percentage of calcium after the application of extracoronal bleaching materials.


  1. Rotstein I, Walton RE. Bleaching discolored teeth: Internal and external. In: Walton RE, Torabinejad M, eds. Principle and practice of endodontics 4th ed, Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders Company; 2009. p. 391.
  2. Rastelli ANS, Nicolodelli G, Romano RA, et al. After bleaching enamel remineralization using a bioactive glass-ceramic (BioSilicate®). Biomed Glasses 2016;2: 1-9.
  3. Junqueira RB, Carvalho RF, Carmo AMR, et al. In vitro analysis of human enamel microhardness as subjected to prolonged use of external bleaching agents. UNOPAR Cient Cienc Biol Saude 2013;15: 141-143.
  4. Vasconcelos AAMD, Cunha AGG, Borges BCD, et al. Enamel properties after tooth bleaching with hydrogen/carbamide peroxides in association with a CPP-ACP paste. Acta Odontol Scandinavia 2012;70: 337.
  5. Mihu CM, Dudea D, Melincovici C, et al. Tooth enamel, the result of the relationship between matrix proteins and hydroxyapatite crystals. App Med Informatics 2008;23: 68-72.
  6. Bharatham H, Zakaria ZAB, Perimal EK, et al. Mineral and physiochemical evaluation of cockle shell (anadara granosa) and other selected mulloscan shell as potential biomaterials. Sains Malaysiana 2014;43: 1023-1029.
  7. Lee SW, Balazsi C, Balazsi K, et al. Comparative study of hydroxyapatite prepared from seashells and eggshells as a bone graft material. Tissue Eng & Regenerative Med 2014;11: 113-120.
  8. Alqahtani MQ. Tooth-bleaching procedures and their controversial effects: a literature review. Saudi Dent J 2014;26: 33-46.
  9. Hegde MN, Shetty KR, Shetty S. Overview of in-office bleaching of vital teeth. IRJP 2012;3: 12-16.
  10. Marson FC, Goncalves RS, Silva CO, et al. Penetration of hydrogen peroxide and degradation rate of different bleaching products. Operative Dentist 2014;39: 1-8.
  11. Fearon J. Tooth whitening: concepts and controversies. Int Dent SA 2007;11: 24-38.
  12. Khiri MZA, Matori KA, Zainuddin N. The usability of ark clam shell (anadara granosa) as calcium precursor to produce hydroxyapatite nanoparticle via wet chemical precipitate method in various sintering temperature. Springer Plus 2016;5: 1-15.
  13. Hegedus C, Bistey T, Flora-Nagy E, et al. An atomic force microscopy study on the effect of bleaching agents on enamel surface. J Dent 1999;27: 509-515.
  14. Reema SD, Lahiri PK, Roy SS. Review of casein phospohopeptides-amorphous calcium phosphate. Chinese J Dent Res 2014;17: 7-13.
  15. Valera MC, Camargo CHR, Carvalho CAT, et al. Effectiveness of carbamide peroxide and sodium perborate in non-vital discolored teeth. J Appl Oral Sci 2009;17: 254-261.

How to Cite

Hikmah, N., Nugroho, J. J., Natsir, N., Rovani, C. A., & Mooduto, L. (2019). Enamel remineralization after extracoronal bleaching using nano-hydroxyapatite (nha) from synthesis results of blood clam (anadara granosa) shells. Journal of Dentomaxillofacial Science, 4(1), 28–31.




Search Panel

Most read articles by the same author(s)

> >>