Journal of Dentomaxillofacial Science https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs en-US <p>This work is licensed under a <a href="http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/" rel="license">Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License</a>.</p> jdmfs.fkg@unhas.ac.id (Muhammad Ruslin) arul@discoversys.com (Dr. Arul Kandasamy, PhD) Sun, 14 Apr 2024 07:00:11 +0000 OJS 3.3.0.10 http://blogs.law.harvard.edu/tech/rss 60 A basket of materials for 3D printed prostheses in digital dentistry https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1583 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This literature review's objective is to identify feasible materials that can be 3D printed and is utilised to create removable dentures. The review includes an overview of the properties, advantages, and limitations of different 3D printing materials, including polymers, metals, resins, ceramics, and composites.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>In the era of digital dentistry, additive manufacturing, or 3D printing, is taking the place of subtractive manufacturing, or milling. For example, pre polymerised PMMA (polymethylmethacrylate) used for subtractive manufacturing leads to more wastage of material (block) compared to additive manufacturing. Traditionally 3D printing has its roots in rapid prototyping (RP), which the name is given to the rapid production of models using additive layer manufacturing.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The study showed that the addition of CNCs and AgNPs to the PMMA resin resulted in a significant improvement in the mechanical properties of the printed parts. The flexural strength of the composite resin increased by up to 31.6% with the addition of 0.1 wt% AgNPs and 1 wt% CNCs. The impact strength of the composite resin also increased by up to 24.2% with the addition of 0.1 wt% AgNPs and 1 wt% CNCs. The researchers attributed the improvement in mechanical properties to the synergistic effect of CNCs and AgNPs, which enhanced the interfacial adhesion between the polymer matrix and the reinforcement particles.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Additive manufacturing describes technologies that can be used anywhere throughout the product life cycle from pre-production (i.e. rapid prototyping) to full scale production (also known as mass production).</p> Chanchal Nenwani, Nilesh Bulbule, Varun Bhatt, Akanksha Shinde, Gayatri Balachandran, Amit Jagtap Copyright (c) 2024 Chanchal Nenwani, Nilesh Bulbule, Varun Bhatt, Akanksha Shinde, Gayatri Balachandran, Amit Jagtap https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1583 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Aesthetic correction by making anterior adhesive bridge mesh design: A case report https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1596 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>The article aims to present an aesthetic correction for tooth loss in the anterior region of the mandible by making an anterior adhesive bridge.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: The patient complained of decreased self-assurance due to the absence of teeth in the lower right central incisor area following an accident. They desire a permanent denture solution but are reluctant to undergo extensive tissue removal. The treatment carried out was by making an anterior adhesive bridge using a mesh design. The mesh was designed to increase the retention of the metal wing surface in contact with the abutment teeth.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The patient was happy that they could use their teeth for chewing as well as for improving his appearance when smile.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>It was concluded that the mesh design adhesive anterior bridge construction was a conservative treatment option for aesthetic correction of missing teeth in the mandibular anterior region.</p> Ista Meidarlina, Aprillia Adenan Copyright (c) 2024 Ista Meidarlina, Aprillia Adenan https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1596 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Dento-maxillary disharmony class I malocclusion with severe crowding, crooked canine, midline shifting and lip incompetence management: A case report https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1610 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This case report aimed to provide treatment sequential DDM to meet the patient’s expectations.</p> <p><strong>Case Report: </strong>Before starting the treatment, 2 first upper premolar needed to be extracted to gain space for severe anterior crowding teeth and 2 second lower molar because the teeth were not in good condition. After extraction, bracket placement with fixed appliance 0,22” MBT prescription and NiTi wires sequences were done for initial leveling. When it has already leveled, start for canine retraction using an elastomeric chain in wire SS 0,016x0,022-inch. Then, T-loop bends were used for anterior retraction in the same wire. Finishing detailing using SS 0,017x0,025-inch. The last one, Hawley Retainer, was used as a retainer.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The final results were as expected by the patient. She gained confidence through her new smile, and the orthodontist obtained what it needed for ideal occlusion except for Class I molar relationship because mesialization of the second lower mandibular tooth, and distalization of the anterior mandibular region but Class I canine were obtained, no rotation, no space, flat occlusal plane, and excellent crown angulation and inclination. Also, the patient’s lip became competent.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>This case concludes that the patient was happy with the overall treatment results and was satisfied with the pleasant and esthetic smile achieved at the end of the treatment.</p> Ida B. Narmada, Chitra Martalia, Intan VD. Hariati, Alvita Wibowo, Fenella Andrata Copyright (c) 2024 Ida B. Narmada, Chitra Martalia, Intan VD. Hariati, Alvita Wibowo https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1610 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Submandibular abscess in a pregnant patient with multiple antibiotic allergies: A case report https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1685 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This article describes and discusses the management of submandibular abscesses in pregnant women with allergies to several antibiotics.</p> <p><strong>Case Report:</strong> A 34-year-old pregnant female patient came to the dental clinic with complaints of swelling and pain in her left cheek and difficulty in opening her jaw. The patient was diagnosed with a left submandibular abscess.</p> <p><strong>Result: </strong>The doctor performed an odontectomy and extracted the remaining roots, which were suspected to be the cause of the abscess. The patient was also advised to visit the emergency room at Brawijaya University Hospital for further treatment after coamoxiclav failed to alleviate the symptoms.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> This case reports a dramatic course of treatment in a pregnant patient with a submandibular abscess accompanied by allergies to several antibiotics. Surgical intervention in pregnant women requires appropriate clinical considerations and guidelines to prevent complications.</p> Fitriana, Erinna Ardiyanti Copyright (c) 2024 Fitriana, Erinna Ardiyanti https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1685 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Management of superficial ranula with marsupialization technique: A case report https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1607 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> Ranulas are cystic fluid-filled cavities caused by extravasation of the sublingual glands on the floor of the mouth.</p> <p><strong>Methods</strong>: A 31-year-old woman complained of swelling beneath her left tongue that had developed during the previous month. Examination revealed that the swollen area was 2 cm in diameter, long, soft, and bluesy. This case was treated with the marsupialization technique. </p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>The biopsy indicates that the lesion is a ranula. After two weeks of observation, no complications or recurrences occurred after treatment.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The superficial ranula was successfully treated with marsupialization procedures without complications or recurrences.</p> Andries Pascawinata, Hamdy Lisfrizal Copyright (c) 2024 Andries Pascawinata, Hamdy Lisfrizal https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1607 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Coronally advanced flap with and without connective tissue graft in root coverage procedure: A Case Series https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1322 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>This paper aims to report the outcome of the coronally advanced flap with and without connective tissue graft in the root coverage procedure. We intend to explain the importance of connective tissue graft in coronally advanced flap surgery.</p> <p><strong>Methods: </strong>Two patients with gingival recession required surgical intervention to get root coverage and improve aesthetics. Both patients were treated with a coronally advanced flap. We combined the coronally advanced flap with a connective tissue graft for the first patient's maxillary left second incisor and canine; meanwhile, we only did the coronally advanced flap for the second patient's maxillary right canine and first premolar.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Surgical intervention was done for both patients with good results. For the first patient with a connective tissue graft, we noticed increased thickness on the keratinized gingiva and gained 1 mm of root coverage. Meanwhile, we got full root coverage for the second patient. In this article, a patient with a connective tissue graft was observed for six months, and a patient without a connective tissue graft was observed for two years. In both cases, we noticed stable and good results.</p> <p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>Coronally advanced flap procedure can be a reliable treatent for root coverage in the tooth with gingival recession. An additional connective tissue graft combined with a coronally advanced flap can increase keratinized tissue thickness.</p> Budi, Desy Situmorang, Irma Ervina, Martina Amalia Copyright (c) 2024 Budi, Desy Situmorang, Irma Ervina, Martina Amalia https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1322 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The relationship of anterior malocclusion with phoneme articulation in children aged 6-12 years in Makassar, Indonesia https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1645 <h1>Objective: This study aims to establish the correlation between anterior malocclusion and phoneme articulation among children between 6 and 12 years old in Makassar, Indonesia.</h1> <p><strong>Material and methods: </strong>A cross-sectional study was conducted on 157 elementary school students aged 6-12 in Makassar City, Indonesia. The sampling method used was purposive to identify students who met specific inclusion and exclusion criteria. Each student underwent an examination to determine the presence of anterior dental malocclusion and articulation check using a multi-word format consisting of phonemes. The data was analyzed using SPSS version 27.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> The statistical tests conducted using the Chi-Square method shows a significant correlation between protrusion, diastema, deep bite, and crossbite with phoneme articulation errors, with a<em> p-</em>value of less than 0.05. Crowding is the most prevalent among all types of anterior malocclusion, while omissions are the most common type of phoneme articulation disorder.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Our findings indicate that children between ages 6 and 12 in Makassar, presenting anterior malocclusion, could potentially demonstrate phoneme articulation irregularities. These may be associated with such conditions as protrusion, diastema, deep bite and crossbite.</p> Karima Q. Mansjur, Baharuddin M. Ranggang, Mansjur Nasir, Susilowati Mudjari, Bella A. Satria, Eka Savitri Copyright (c) 2024 Karima Q. Mansjur, Baharuddin M. Ranggang, Mansjur Nasir, Susilowati Mudjari, Bella A. Satria, Eka Savitri https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1645 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Steiner cephalometric analysis in orthognathic surgery patients treated at Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1586 <p><strong>Objective: </strong>Orthognathic surgery is surgery on abnormalities of dentofacial that occur in the maxilla, mandible, or both. Determine measurement of the type of dentoskeletal abnormality in malocclusion using cephalometric analysis. Steiner analysis is used because it is considered that the <em>Sela tursica-nasion-point A</em> (SNA) angle, <em>Sela tursica-nasion-point B</em> (SNB) used to describe the relationship between the maxilla and the mandible.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods: </strong>The study involved 30 patients who underwent orthognathic surgery between April 2017 and April 2022 at Hasan Sadikin Hospital Bandung. Cephalometric radiography was utilized for assessment, employing the Steiner method to analyze various angles. Patient characteristics, including gender and age, were also observed. Parameters such as the average angle of SNA, SNB, and ANB were examined, alongside diagnoses, the number of corrected jaws, and the type of orthognathic surgery.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The findings indicated a predominance of male orthognathic surgery patients (63.3%), with the majority falling within the age range of 19 to 20 years (40%). Grade III malocclusion was the most prevalent diagnosis (96.7%), with double jaw correction being the most common procedure performed (90%). Bilateral sagittal split osteotomy was utilized in 93% of cases, followed by Le Fort I osteotomy in 96.7% of cases and chinplasty in 16.7% of patients. The average SNA, SNB and ANB was 83.8<sup>o</sup>, 90.6<sup>o</sup>, and -6.8<sup>o</sup>, respectively.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The findings indicated a higher frequency of orthognathic surgery among patients diagnosed with class III malocclusion. Additionally, a notable proportion of patients underwent simultaneous orthognathic surgery on both the maxilla and mandible.</p> <p><br /><br /></p> Fadli Ashar, Eka M. Oli'i, Abel T. Yuza Copyright (c) 2024 Fadli Ashar, Eka M. Oli'i, Abel T. Yuza https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1586 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Resilience differences between TMA and stainless steel archwire after immersion in apple cider https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1545 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This research aimed to determine the differences in resilience between TMA and stainless steel archwires after immersion in artificial saliva and apple cider, and resilience between TMA and stainless steel archwires after immersion in apple cider. </p> <p><strong>Material and Method: </strong>The samples were divided into two control groups of TMA and stainless steel archwires immersed in artificial saliva and two treatment groups of TMA and stainless steel archwires immersed in apple cider. Each group consisted of 7 samples, with a diameter of 0.016 x 0.022 inches and a length of 11.6 cm. All samples were incubated, and resilience measurements were taken using a Tensilon RTF-1350 universal testing machine.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The resilience of TMA and stainless steel archwires immersed in apple cider was greater than in artificial saliva. However, apple cider significantly affects the change of resilience of TMA and stainless archwires.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>A significant difference was found between the resilience of the TMA and stainless steel archwires after immersion in apple cider.</p> Hilda F. Lubis, Winny Copyright (c) 2024 Hilda F. Lubis, Winny https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1545 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The relationship between DMFT status and dental anxiety https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1686 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aimed to assess the anxiety trait, the anxiety state, the dental anxiety, as well as the oral health of a group of patients who were referred to a maxillofacial surgery department.</p> <p><strong>Material and Method:</strong> The study was conducted between 1 May 2019 and 31 May 2019. All patients were administered the anxiety-trait and anxiety state using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory questionnaires and Corah’s Dental Anxiety Scale. Then, they were clinically examined, and a DMFT index score was calculated according to the WHO criteria and recorded for each patient. Demographics, smoking, and alcohol habits were also recorded for each patient.</p> <p><strong>Result:</strong> Overall, 81 patients (52 females, 29 males) completed the study. Statistical analyses revealed a statistically significant association between occasional or daily smoking and high DMFT scores (p &lt; 0.005). As for anxiety, a statistically significant association was observed between both high anxiety state and trait and high DMFT scores (p &lt; 0.05), as well as between moderate or severe dental anxiety and high DMFT scores (p &lt; 0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> A higher anxiety is associated with a higher DMFT score. The assessment of dental anxiety may be necessary for routine diagnostic work-ups during dental practice. In more severe cases, a multidisciplinary approach with the aid of behavioral health or psychological professionals may be a valid option.</p> Paolo Boffano, Patrizia Zeppegno, Matteo Brucoli, Muhammad Ruslin Copyright (c) 2024 Paolo Boffano, Patrizia Zeppegno, Matteo Brucoli, Muhammad Ruslin https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1686 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 The intersection of trust and satisfaction in Dentist-Patient interactions in Indonesia https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1689 <p><strong>Objectives: </strong>This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the similarities of two constructs of the doctor-patient relationship in terms of trust and satisfaction among patients receiving dental care in Makassar, Indonesia.</p> <p><strong>Materials and Methods: </strong>The study involved 322 participants aged 18 years or older who had received dental treatment. The snowball sampling technique was used to recruit participants through online questionnaires distributed on various social media platforms. The questionnaires included demographic information and The Dentist Trust Scale (DTS) and Dental Care Satisfaction Scale (DCS) to measure trust and satisfaction with dental care. Data analysis involved Exploratory Factor Analysis and Confirmatory Factor Analysis using SPSS and AMOS software.</p> <p><strong>Results: </strong>Trust and satisfaction are interrelated, although the relationship was insignificant (0.36). Exploratory factor analysis (EFA) identified three factors in these instruments. Four models were created and evaluated using model fit analysis. All default models display a GFI value that does not correspond to the universal threshold value. Model 1 had the greatest GFI value; hence, adjustments were performed to create models 1(a) and 1(b). The updated model did not produce a more appropriate value than the default model. Model 1 was picked as the model that best matched the requirements.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>The study findings highlight the importance of trust and satisfaction in dental care experiences among patients in Makassar City. The identified factors provide insights into different aspects of the doctor-patient relationship and can be used to improve the quality of care provided.</p> Nursyamsi Djamaluddin, Ayub I. Anwar, Burhanuddin Pasiga, Fuad H. Akbar, Rasmidar Samad, Hasanuddin H, Yu Ri-Kim Copyright (c) 2024 Nursyamsi Djamaluddin, Ayub I. Anwar, Burhanuddin Pasiga, Fuad H. Akbar, Rasmidar Samad, Hasanuddin H, Yu Ri-Kim https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1689 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Inhibitory potensial of probitic drink against the growht of A. actinomycetemcomitans bacteria https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1330 <p><strong>O</strong><strong>bjective: </strong>To explain the effect of probiotic drinks on the inhibitory growth of Aggregatibacter actino-mycetemcomitans.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This type of research is an experimental laboratory research design with a post-test only control group design. The number of samples in this study were 32. The sample used was a probiotic drink and the population used was A. actinomycetemcomitans.The antibacterial inhibition test used is the diffusion method of the wells. Then incubated for (1-2) x 24 hours at 37˚ temperature. And then the diameter of the inhibition zone formed through the wells is measured using a vernier in millimeters (mm) etic number research :</p> <p><strong>R</strong><strong>e</strong><strong>su</strong><strong>lt</strong><strong>s: </strong>The average area of inhibition of probiotic drinks content was 0 mm indicating weak inhibition. Based on Mann Whitney non-parametric difference test the value (p &lt;0.05).</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Probiotic drinks content did not affect the inhibition of A. actinomycetemcomitans.</p> Umi G. Tjiptoningsih, Ratih Widyastuti, Herlin Amelia, Elisa Rusandi Copyright (c) 2024 Umi G. Tjiptoningsih, Ratih Widyastuti, Herlin Amelia, Elisa Rusandi https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1330 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Effectivity of gambir extract (uncaria gambir roxb.) on the growth of bacteria staphylococcus aureus https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1377 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> This study aims to see the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC), minimum contact time of gambir extract, and the effectiveness of gambir extract (Uncaria gambir Roxb.) on the inhibition of growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This research is an experimental laboratory research. The research design used was the pre-test post-test control group. The samples used in the study were Staphylococcus aureus smear, gambir extract with the concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%, positive control (Chresophene), and negative control (aqubidest). Wilcoxon test and Mann Whitney test was used as the data analysis.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> The study showed that the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of gambir extract at the concentration of 2% and the inhibitory of gambir extract at the concentration of 2%, 4%, 6%, and aquabides against the growth of Staphylococcus aureus bacteria with a diameter of the inhibitory zone formed around the disc paper was 6.46mm, 6.64mm, 7.16mm, and 5.60mm within 24 hours while 6.57mm, 6.95mm, 7.54mm, and 5.60mm was formed within 48 hours.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion</strong>: The MIC of gambir extract to Staphylococcus aureus is 2%, minimum contact time is 24 hours, and moderate inhibitory to Staphylococcus aureus bacteria.</p> Hafsah Katu, Amirah R. Syamsul , Rehatta Yongki, Harun Achmad, Egita A. Sukarno Copyright (c) 2024 Hafsah Katu, Amirah R. Syamsul , Rehatta Yongki, Harun Achmad, Egita A. Sukarno https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1377 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Description of eruption of permanent upper canine teeth in stunting children at Koto balingka west pasaman elementary school https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1561 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> The aim of this study was to describe the eruption of the permanent upper canine teeth in stunted children at Koto Balingka Elementary School, West Pasaman.</p> <p><strong>Materials and methods: </strong>This research is a quantitative descriptive observational study with a case control design. The sampling technique is purposive sampling. The number of samples in this study was 60 children consisting of 30 (50%) stunted children and 30 (50%) normal children aged 11-12 years in the Parit Koto Balingka Health Center Working Area. Univariate analysis is presented in the form of frequency distribution and percentages.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> Research shows that 20 (66.7%) children with stunting have not yet erupted their permanent upper canine incisors and 10 (33.3%) children have erupted, whereas 4 (13.3%) of normal children have not yet erupted their teeth, and 26 (86.7%) children had erupted.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion:</strong> Research shows that children with stunting status are the largest number of children who have not yet erupted their upper permanent canine teeth, namely 20 (66.7%) children, and children with normal nutritional status are the largest number of children who have erupted upper permanent canine teeth, namely 26 children (86.7%) children, with the average age of eruption of permanent upper canine teeth being 12 years.</p> Intan BE. Mahata, Sri P. Utami, Athifa Trisa Copyright (c) 2024 Intan BE. Mahata, Sri P. Utami, Athifa Trisa https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1561 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge, perceptions, and preferences for bone grafts in periodontal regenerative therapy (Indonesian society of periodontology study) https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1570 <p><strong>Objective:</strong> To evaluate the knowledge, perceptions, and preferences of Indonesian periodontists and resident students regarding the use of bone transplants in periodontal regeneration treatment.</p> <p><strong>Material and Methods:</strong> This is a cross-sectional descriptive study using questionnaires given to members of The Indonesian Society of Periodontology.</p> <p><strong>Results:</strong> All respondents had various knowledge and preferences regarding using bone grafts in periodontal regenerative therapy. Oral hygiene and radiographic appearance are parameters that must be evaluated before regenerative procedures. The most widely chosen graft is the xenograft due to better results, biocompatibility, and bioactivity of the material. Cost is the main reason why the respondents do not use bone grafts. Bone grafts are often combined with the GTR and membrane techniques, and the granular form is the most frequently used form of graft. Bone grafts are often used in periodontitis cases with vertical bone loss followed by implant placement.</p> <p><strong>Conclusion: </strong>Xenografts are the most widely used bone graft material in Indonesia. There was no statistically significant difference between the two groups' perceptions of using bone grafts in periodontal regenerative therapy. Respondents were more satisfied with using bone grafts than with other materials.</p> Christina Callista, Adityo Widaryono, Robert Lessang, Nadhia A. Harsas Copyright (c) 2024 Christina Callista, Adityo Widaryono, Robert Lessang, Nadhia A. Harsas https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0 https://jdmfs.org/index.php/jdmfs/article/view/1570 Mon, 01 Apr 2024 00:00:00 +0000